What Your Nails Say About Your Health
Medically Reviewed by Stephanie S. Gardner, MD on April 26, 2022
Nails and Health: Read the Signs
Did you know your nails can reveal clues to your overall health? A touch of white here, a rosy tinge there, or some rippling or bumps may be a sign of disease in the body. Problems in the liver, lungs, and heart can show up in your nails. Keep reading to learn what secrets your nails might reveal.
White nails, also known as leukonychia, describes fingernails that are partially or completely white in color. The white color could be the result of several things such as trauma, anemia, dietary deficiencies, heart or kidney disease, or even poisoning.
If the nails are mostly white with darker rims, this can indicate liver problems, such as hepatitis. In this image, you can see the fingers are also jaundiced, another sign of liver trouble.
One of the most common causes of yellow nails is a fungal infection. As the infection worsens, the nail bed may retract, and nails may thicken and crumble. In rare cases, yellow nails can indicate a more serious condition such as severe thyroid disease, lung disease, diabetes or psoriasis.
Nails with a bluish tint can mean the body isn't getting enough oxygen. This could indicate a lung problem, such as emphysema. Some heart problems can be associated with bluish nails.
If the nail surface is rippled or pitted, this may be an early sign of psoriasis or inflammatory arthritis. Discoloration of the nail is common; the skin under the nail can seem reddish-brown.
Cracked or Split Nails
Dry, brittle nails that frequently crack or split have been linked to thyroid disease. Cracking or splitting combined with a yellowish hue is more likely due to a fungal infection.
Puffy Nail Fold
Chronic paronychia is a condition that causes inflammation, redness, tenderness, and swelling of the skin folds and tissues surrounding the nails. It is usually the result of irritants or allergens but it can be caused by the fungus Candida albicans, other infections or psoriasis. It can usually be treated with topical steroids.
Dark Lines Beneath the Nail
This nail discoloration is called a melanonychia and is caused by the pigment melanin. There are several possible causes including skin cancer, infection or injury.
Biting your nails may be nothing more than an old habit, but in some cases it's a sign of persistent anxiety that could benefit from treatment. Nail biting or picking has also been linked to obsessive-compulsive disorder. If you can't stop, it's worth discussing with your doctor.
Nails Are Only Part of the Puzzle
Though nail changes accompany many conditions, these changes are rarely the first sign. And many nail abnormalities are harmless -- not everyone with white nails has hepatitis. If you're concerned about the appearance of your nails, see your doctor or a dermatologist.